DISSECTION OF PALAEMON (PRAWN)

DISSECTION OF PALAEMON (PRAWN) External features of Palaemon (Prawn) It is fresh-water prawn, which forms a highly palatable dish. Prawn is the most favourite and well-liked animal by the students. Total length : 25 to 35 cm. Shape: Spindle-shaped, elongated and bilaterally symmetrical. Colour: Pale blue or greenish it becomes…

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CLASSIFICATION OF CHONDRILLA

CLASSIFICATION OF CHONDRILLA Phylum :- Porifera (Pore bearing, cellular grade, asymmetrical or radially symmetrical.) Class :- Demospongiae (Skeleton of spongin fibres or siliceous spicules which are not six-rayed.) Order :- Tetractinellida (Spicules tetraxon) Genus :- Chondrilla Habit and habitat of Chondrilla Chondrilla is a marine tetractinellid demosponge. Distribution of Chondrilla…

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CLASSIFICATION OF OSCARELLA

CLASSIFICATION OF OSCARELLA Phylum :- Porifera (Pore bearing, cellular grade, asymmetrical or radially symmetrical.) Class :- Demospongiae (Skeleton of spongin fibres or siliceous spicules which are not six-rayed.) Order :- Myxospongida (Skeleton absent.) Genus :- Oscarella Habit and habitat of Oscarella Oscarella is found in shallow water forming encrustation over…

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DISSECTION OF POECILOCERUS (GRASSHOPPER)

DISSECTION OF POECILOCERUS (GRASSHOPPER) General anatomy of Poecilocerus (Grasshopper) Procedure For Dissection of poecilocerus (Grasshopper) take either preserved or freshly chloroformed grasshopper. Fix it in the dissecting dish. Cut the lateral membranes between terga and sterna. Remove carefully the cut tergal plates over thorax and head region to study the…

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DISSECTION OF PERIPLANETA AMERICANA (COCKROACH)

DISSECTION OF PERIPLANETA AMERICANA (COCKROACH) This is a common cockroach. This insect is the most suited for laboratory study due to its manageable size, abundant occurrence and being least specialized insect. It is Nocturnal and cursorial, inhabiting drain pipes and backeries. External features of periplaneta americana (Cockroach) Procedure For Dissection…

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DISSECTION OF SEPIA (CUTTLE FISH)

DISSECTION OF SEPIA (CUTTLE FISH) External features of Sepia (Cuttle Fish) Sepia is commonly found in sea in India. Very favourite class room specimen and very good animal tc study the nervous system. The preserved specimen is brownish in colour bluish with leathery texture. The animal can atonce be recognized…

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DISSECTION OF LOLIGO (SQUID)

DISSECTION OF LOLIGO (SQUID) External features For dissection of loligo (Squid)Take a nicely preserved specimen. Loligo (Squid) can be easily differentiated from Sepia by having lateral fin in the posterior region of the trunk. Study various structures in head and trunk regions. Nervous system Procedure Dissect the animal by making…

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CLASSIFICATION OF EUPLECTELLA

CLASSIFICATION OF EUPLECTELLA Phylum :- Porifera (Pore bearing, cellular grade, asymmetrical or radially symmetrical) Class :- Hexactinellida (Glass sponges with siliceous spicules of triaxon or six-pointed type.) Order :- Hexasterophora (Hexaster spicule present. Amphid is absent) Genus :- Euplectella Goegraphical Distribution It is distributed near Philippines and West Indies. Habit…

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CLASSIFICATION OF LEUCILLA

Classification of Leucilla Phylum :- Porifera (Pore bearing, cellular grade, asymmetrical or radially symmetrical)Class :- Calcarea (Calcareous spicules present)Order :- Heterocoel (Syconoid sponges with internal folds) Genus :- Leucilla Distribution It is a small solitary and marine sponge Habit and Habitat Common in Europe. Distributed from Rhode Island to Greenland.…

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DISSSECTION OF PILA GLOBOSA (APPLE SNAIL)

DISSSECTION OF PILA GLOBOSA (APPLE SNAIL) Pila Globosa is the most common and abundant gastropod, inhabiting ponds, rivers, tanks and rice-fields. It is very familiar for dissection and is also famous for its very slow movement called as snail pace. External features of Pila Globosa (Apple Snail) with shell and…

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DISSECTION OF UNIO OR LAMELLIDENS

DISSECTION OF UNIO OR LAMELLIDENS External features of Unio or Lamellidens Unio is the most familiar specimen amongst laboratory dissections. Unio is found abundantly in lime-rich water and in the bottom of lakes, ponds, rivers and streams. Generally they are found half-embedded in mud or sand at the bottom. Procedure…

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DISSECTION OF HIRUDINARIA GRANULOSA (LEECH)

DISSECTION OF HIRUDINARIA GRANULOSA (LEECH) It is the common cattle leech. For studying external features, take freshly killed specimens with chloroform vapours. External features of Hirudinaria Granulosa (Leech) Number of segments : 33. Number of annuli in a typical middle segment is 5. Total length : 5 to 10 cm.…

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DISSECTION OF PHERETIMA POSTHUMA (EARTHWORM)

DISSECTION OF PHERETIMA POSTHUMA (EARTHWORM) External features of pheretima posthuma (earthworm) It is common earthworm. For external features of pheretima posthuma (earthworm), living narcotised or preserved specimens can be examined. Observe and draw the following parts. Draw separately dorsal and ventral suifaces. Distinguish the dorsal suiface by median blood vessel.…

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DISSECTION OF NEREIS (CLAM WORM)

DISSECTION OF NEREIS (CLAM WORM) General Instructions for Dissection of ascaris (round worm) While dissecting the animal keep in mind the following points. Listen and follow carefully the instructions given by the teacher in your practical class. Study well about the internal structures of the animal to be dissected. Keep…

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DISSECTION OF ASCARIS (ROUND WORM)

DISSECTION OF ASCARIS (ROUND WORM) General Instructions for Dissection of ascaris (round worm) While dissecting the animal keep in mind the following points. Listen and follow carefully the instructions given by the teacher in your practical class. Study well about the internal structures of the animal to be dissected. Keep…

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Study of Euglena

Classification of Euglena Phylum :- Protozoa (Unicellular) Subphylum :- Sarcomastigophora (Cilia absent, locomotion by pseudopodia) Class :- Phytomastigophora (Chromatophores present in majority) Order :- Euglenida (Larger forms with one or more flagella) Genus :- Euglena General Study of Euglena Euglena is free-living and solitary. It occurs in stagnant water of…

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Study Of Paramecium

Classification of Paramecium Phylum :- Protozoa (Unicellular) Sub-Phylum :- Ciliophora (Ciliary movement in all stages). Class :- Ciliata (Cilia present throughout life.) Sub Class :- Euciliata (Cytopharynx, contractile vacuole, mega and micronucleus present Order :- Holotricha (Equal cilia) Sub-order :- Trichostomata (Mouth leads into cytopharynx.) Family :- Paramecidae (Oral groove…

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Classification of Sycon or Scypha

Classification of Sycon or Scypha Phylum :- Porifera (Pore bearing, cellular grade, asymmetrical or radially symmetrical). Class :- Calcarea (Calcareous spicules present). Order :- Heterocoe Syconoid sponges with internal folds. Genus :- Sycon Habit and habitat Sycon or Scypha is a small, solitary or colonial marine sponge found in shallow…

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Classification of Leucosolenia

Classification of Leucosolenia Phylum :- Porifera (Pore bearing, cellular grade, asymmetrical or radially symmetrical). Class :- Calcarea (Calcareous spicules present). Order :- Homocoela (Canal system of ascon type). Genus :- Leucosolenia Colony of Leucosolenia Habit and habitat Marine colonial sponge found in shallow waters below tidemark on seashore rocks, having…

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Study of Giardia – Classification and Life Cycle

Classification of Giardia Phylum :- ProtozoaSubclass :- SarcomastigophoraClass :- ZoomastigophoreaOrder :- DiplomonadidaGenus :- Giardia Comments on Giardia It is live in the intestine of man as an endoparasite and cause Giardiasis It has two nuclei and bears four flagella on either side of the body Its fee on vitamins and…

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STUDY OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA – Classification and Life Cycle

STUDY OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA CLASSIFICATION OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA Phylum :- protozoaSub phylum :- SarcomastigophoreClass :- RhizopodaOrder :- LobosaGenus :- EntamoebaSpecies :- histolytica Distribution Entamoeba histolytica is worldwide in distribution, but its prevalence is greater in tropics and subtropics than in the temperate zones. It has been reported that incidence of…

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Study of Leishmania – Classification, Life Cycle and Mode of Transmission

Study of Leishmania - Classification, Life Cycle and Mode of Transmission Classification of Leishmania Phylum : ProtozoaSubphylum : SarcomastigophoraClass : ZoomastigophoreaOrder : KinetoplastidaFamily : TrypanosomatidaeGenus : Leishmania Distribution:- It is found as an intracellular parasite in Leucocytes and cells of liver, spleen, bone marrow, etc. Morphology and Life Cycle of…

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Circulatory System Of Branchiostoma

Circulatory System Of Branchiostoma Blood Vascular System or Circulatory system of Branchiostoma is of the closed type, well developed and peculiar in many ways. Blood is colourless due to lack of any respiratory pigment and corpuscles. Besides blood vessels it also occurs in some lymph spaces such as in metapleural…

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Circulatory System Of Herdmania

Blood Vascular System or circulatory system of Herdmania is well developed and greatly modified. It includes : (i) Heart and pericardium, (ii) blood vessels, and (iii) blood. Heart and pericardium The pericardium is a noncontractile, elongated and transparent tube about 7 cm long and 3 mm wide, running obliquely below…

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Digestive system of Herdmania

Digestive system of Herdmania includes the alimentary canal and the digestive glands. Alimentary canal Digestive tract of Herdmania is coiled and complete, beginning at the mouth and terminating at the anus. The following parts form the alimentary canal. Mouth The mouth or branchial aperture opens on the top of the…

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Digestive system of Balanoglossus

Introduction :- Digestive system of Balanoglossus Nestled within the enigmatic phylum Hemichordata lies a remarkable marine invertebrate known as Balanoglossus. Despite its seemingly humble appearance, this creature harbors a digestive system that captivates the curiosity of researchers and enthusiasts alike. Within the context of its evolutionary significance and biological uniqueness,…

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WHAT IS A WILDLIFE SAFARI AND THEIR IMPORTANCE

Introduction: Wildlife safaris, a thrilling and immersive journey into the heart of nature, offer a unique blend of adventure and conservation. These experiences provide enthusiasts with the opportunity to witness the untamed beauty of the animal kingdom in its natural habitat. Beyond the exhilarating encounters with diverse wildlife, wildlife safaris…

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How do birds migrate across continents with such precision?

Introduction: How do birds migrate across continents with such precision? In the expansive canvas of the natural world, few phenomena rival the annual migration of birds across continents. It is a spectacle that encapsulates the essence of precision and navigational prowess. From the soaring Arctic Terns charting pole-to-pole courses to…

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IMMUNIZATION AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE

Introduction Immunization, a cornerstone of modern medicine, has revolutionized healthcare by harnessing the incredible power of the immune system to protect animals, including humans, against a wide range of pathogens. In this article, we will explore the principles of immunization, its significance in the animal kingdom, and how it has…

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WHAT IS HYPERTHYROIDISM?

Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a medical condition that results from the overproduction of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland (opposite of hypothyroidism). Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, making hyperthyroidism a significant concern in the field of zoology and endocrinology. In this article, we will explore…

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WHAT IS HYPOTHYROIDISM ?

Introduction Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder that affects not only humans but a wide range of animal species across the animal kingdom. This condition has significant implications for the health and survival of many creatures. In the field of zoology, understanding hypothyroidism in animals is essential for studying their…

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GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY

Introduction Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a medical condition that occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce an adequate amount of growth hormone (GH). While this condition primarily affects children, it can also manifest in adults. In this article, we will explore the causes, effects, diagnosis, and treatment of…

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BIOLUMINESCENCE IN ANIMALS

Introduction Bioluminescence, the enchanting natural phenomenon of organisms emitting light, has fascinated biologists, oceanographers, and nature enthusiasts for centuries. In the depths of the oceans and the dark corners of the rainforest, countless creatures employ this captivating ability for various purposes. In this comprehensive exploration of bioluminescence, we delve into…

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WHAT IS BIOMIMICRY

Introduction Biomimicry, the art and science of drawing inspiration from nature's designs and processes to solve human challenges, has been a source of inspiration for countless innovations. While biomimicry encompasses a wide spectrum of natural wonders, one of its most profound sources of inspiration is the animal kingdom. From the…

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THE STRONGEST ANIMAL ON EARTH

Introduction Strength in the animal kingdom takes many forms, from sheer muscle power to extraordinary adaptations. In this exploration, we embark on a journey to discover the strongest animal on Earth. Our quest will take us through land, sea, and air, showcasing the remarkable feats of strength that have evolved…

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THE MOST VENOMOUS SNAKE IN THE WORLD

Introduction The Most Venomous Snake in the World: In the world of reptiles, snakes have captivated human fascination for centuries. Among these serpentine creatures, there exists a group that strikes terror into the hearts of many—the venomous snakes. While numerous venomous species exist, one stands out as the most venomous…

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THE IMPORTANCE OF WOLF SPIDERS IN ECOSYSTEM

Introduction The wolf spider, known for its agility, hunting prowess, and maternal instincts, is a fascinating arachnid that prowls in the shadows of the natural world. These solitary and often misunderstood creatures belong to the family Lycosidae and are found on nearly every continent, showcasing remarkable adaptability and diversity. In…

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THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

Introduction The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a monumental scientific endeavor that has left an indelible mark on the landscape of genetics, biology, and medicine. Spanning over a decade, this international research initiative aimed to unravel the complete sequence of the human genome, which serves as the genetic blueprint for…

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GENE AND CELL THERAPY

Introduction At the heart of gene and cell therapy lies a fundamental principle: the modification and manipulation of genes and cells to combat diseases and disorders. This groundbreaking field represents a radical departure from traditional medicine, where treatments primarily address symptoms rather than root causes. The Power of Genes: Gene…

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Biodiversity of Coral Reefs

Introduction Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on our planet, renowned for their vibrant colours and intricate structures. These underwater wonders serve as a vital habitat for a staggering array of marine species and play a significant role in supporting coastal communities. Coral reefs are often referred to…

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Endangered Reptiles and Conservation Efforts

Introduction Endangered Reptiles and Conservation Efforts: In the intricate tapestry of life on Earth, reptiles hold a unique and ancient place. For millions of years, they have navigated the planet's diverse ecosystems with a blend of tenacity and grace, adapting to a wide array of habitats and playing essential roles…

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Endangered Birds and Their Conservation

Introduction Endangered Birds and Their Conservation: Birds are renowned for their beauty, song, and remarkable diversity. However, many bird species face an alarming threat—extinction. Habitat loss, climate change, poaching, and other factors have pushed numerous bird species to the brink. In this article, we explore the world of endangered birds,…

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Endangered Mammals: Conservation Challenges

INTRODUCTION Endangered Mammals: Conservation Challenges: Mammals are among the most iconic and diverse group of animals on our planet, ranging from the towering elephants of Africa to the elusive snow leopards of the Himalayas. Yet, despite their ecological significance and cultural importance, many mammal species are teetering on the brink…

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Understanding the Enigma of Animal Behavior

INTRODUCTION Understanding the Enigma of Animal Behavior: The world of animals is a captivating tapestry of behaviors, each thread woven with precision, adapted for survival, and fine-tuned over eons of evolution. From the intricate dances of honeybees to the coordinated hunting tactics of killer whales, animal behavior is a subject…

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The Intricate World of Animal Intelligence

Introduction The Intricate world of Animal Intelligence: The animal kingdom is a treasure trove of diversity, each species adapted to its unique environment and lifestyle. Beyond their physical attributes, animals possess a wealth of mental faculties that have intrigued scientists and enthusiasts for centuries. Cognitive science, the interdisciplinary study of…

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Birdwatching: A Symphony of Nature’s Beauty and Wonder

Introduction Birdwatching: A Symphony of Nature's Beauty and Wonder often called "birding" by enthusiasts, is a passion that transcends boundaries and connects people to the captivating world of avian life. It is a hobby that blends scientific exploration, artistic appreciation, and a profound connection with the natural world. As we…

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Wildlife Conservation Travel and Ecotourism

Introduction Wildlife Conservation Travel and Ecotourism: The allure of exploring our planet's diverse ecosystems and encountering majestic wildlife has been a source of fascination for generations. However, with the growing awareness of environmental issues and the importance of conserving endangered species, a new form of travel has emerged: wildlife conservation…

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Role and Importance of Zoology in Medicine

Role and Importance of Zoology in Medicine Defining Zoology and Medicine Zoology is the scientific discipline that focuses on the study of animals, encompassing their biology, behavior, physiology, and evolution. Medicine, on the other hand, is the field dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases in humans. While…

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Tardigrades : The Invincible Microscopic Heroes:

Introduction In the vast realm of microscopic life, few creatures have captured the imagination of scientists and enthusiasts alike as much as tardigrades. These minuscule, water-dwelling animals, often referred to as "water bears" or "moss piglets," belong to a phylum called Tardigrada. Despite their diminutive size, tardigrades possess extraordinary survival…

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Endangered Species Conservation

Endangered Species Conservation : Preserving Biodiversity for Future Generations Introduction The Earth is home to a remarkable tapestry of life, with millions of species coexisting in a delicate balance that sustains our planet's ecosystems. However, this intricate web of biodiversity faces an unprecedented threat: extinction. Human activities, such as habitat…

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Role of Zoology in Ecosystem Conservation and Understanding

Role of Zoology in Ecosystem Conservation and Understanding Introduction Role of Zoology in Ecosystem, the study of animals and their behavior, plays a critical role in our understanding of ecosystems and their conservation. Ecosystems are intricate webs of life where every species, from the smallest microorganisms to the largest mammals,…

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PATAU’S SYNDROME

INTRODUCTION  Patau’s syndrome, known as Trisomy 13, unveils the intricate world of genetic anomalies and their impact on human development. Named after Dr. Klaus Patau, the syndrome involves an extra copy of chromosome 13, disrupting the usual genetic blueprint. This disruption triggers a series of events that shape the physical…

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DOWN SYNDROME CAUSES AND RISK

INTRODUCTION Down syndrome causes and risk: Down syndrome also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic condition caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21. It is one of the most common genetic disorders, affecting approximately 1 in 700 babies born worldwide. This article aims to explore…

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NUTRITION IN PROTOZOA

INTRODUCTION Nutrition in Protozoa involves various modes of feeding. Protozoa are a diverse group of single-celled eukaryotic microorganisms that play significant ecological roles and exhibit diverse nutritional strategies. They can be found in various environments, including freshwater, marine habitats, and soil. Understanding the nutritional requirements and mechanisms of nutrient acquisition…

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CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES

INTRODUCTION Phylum Platyhelminthes, commonly known as flatworms, is a diverse group of invertebrates that exhibit unique characteristics and adaptations. This phylum consists of various species, including parasitic and free-living flatworms. In this article, we will explore the characteristics of Phylum Platyhelminthes, their classification, adaptations, ecological roles, and provide examples of…

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CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYLUM CNIDARIA

INTRODUCTION Phylum Cnidaria encompasses a diverse group of marine organisms, including jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and hydroids. These organisms share several characteristic features that define the phylum. In this article, we will explore the characteristics of Phylum Cnidaria, its classification, unique adaptations, ecological significance, and provide examples of organisms within…

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LATERAL LINE SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION The lateral line system is a remarkable sensory adaptation found in most fish species, allowing them to perceive and navigate through their aquatic environments effectively. This sensory system comprises a network of mechanoreceptive organs, called neuromasts, distributed along the fish's body. Through the lateral line system, fish can detect…

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MICROEVOLUTION AND MACROEVOLUTION

INTRODUCTION Evolution is the fundamental process that has shaped the diversity of life on Earth. It occurs through two distinct but interconnected mechanisms: microevolution and macroevolution. Microevolution refers to small-scale genetic changes within populations, while macroevolution encompasses larger-scale changes leading to the emergence of new species or higher taxonomic groups.…

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RESPIRATORY PIGMENTS

INTRODUCTION Respiration is a fundamental process in living organisms, providing oxygen for energy production and removing carbon dioxide as a waste product. To facilitate efficient oxygen transport, various animals have evolved specialized molecules called respiratory pigments. These pigments exhibit distinct structures and functions across different phylogenetic groups, enabling organisms to…

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CHROMATOPHORES: STRUCTURE AND TYPES

INTRODUCTION Coloration plays a crucial role in the lives of many animals, serving diverse purposes such as camouflage, communication, courtship, and warning signals. One remarkable mechanism that enables animals to achieve stunning color changes is the presence of specialized pigment-containing cells called chromatophores. Chromatophores possess the extraordinary ability to alter…

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VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES

Introduction The animal kingdom is a diverse and fascinating realm, encompassing a wide array of creatures. One way to categorize animals is based on their structural characteristics, which leads to the classification of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this article, we will delve into the key differences between these two groups,…

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WHAT IS ZOOLOGY AND IMPORTANCE OF ZOOLOGY

Introduction Zoology, the scientific study of animals, offers a captivating journey into the realm of living organisms that inhabit our planet. From the tiniest microorganisms to the largest mammals, the field of zoology unravels the intricacies of animal life, their behavior, habitats, and evolutionary adaptations. In this article, we will…

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DEVELOPMENT OF C. ELEGANS

INTRODUCTION Development of C. elegans begins when a fertilized egg undergoes a series of cell divisions to form a multicellular embryo. C.elegans (Caenorhabditis elegans) is a roundworm that has been extensively studied as a model organism in developmental biology. It has a relatively simple anatomy and a fully sequenced genome,…

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HARDY WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM LAW

The equation derived based on the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium concept is called the Hardy Weinberg law. In this particular equation, p is represented as the dominant allele’s frequency and q is the representation of the recessive allele’s frequency. This is explained with an example to conclude a Hardy Weinberg equation. Consider a single locus with the presence of only two alleles namely A and a.

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BINOMIAL SYSTEM OF NOMENCLATURE​

The binomial system classifies organisms into groups at various hierarchic levels, on the basis of easily observable and shared morphological features like shape, number and position of limbs etc. in a descending order of group size. As the word binomial suggests, the name of a species is made up of two parts: one indicating the genus and indicating the species. Binomial nomenclature means “two part name” or “system of two part names”.Which name must be used in case of name conflicts How scientific literature must cite names

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PLASMODIUM (MALARIAL PARASITE) 

INTRODUCTION • Plasmodium (Malarial Parasite) belongs to the subphylum Sporozoan of the phylum Protozoa. All sporozoites are parasites. They are intracellular or extracellular parasites of both vertebrates and invertebrates. • Among sporozoans, Plasmodium is the best known and most important species that causes malaria fever. Of these, about 60 species are known among…

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KINDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

INTRODUCTION Environmental pollution is defined as the contamination of air, water, or food in such a manner as to cause real or potential harm to human health or well-being, or to damage or harm nonhuman nature without justification. Pollution is an undesired change in the physical, chemical, or biological properties…

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BIOTIC FACTORS

INTRODUCTION Biotic factors and abiotic factors are two types of factors that have an influence on ecosystem. Biotic factors are the living factors that have an influence on ecosystem. Organisms do not exist alone in nature but in a matrix of other organisms of many species. Many species in an…

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NOISE POLLUTION

INTRODUCTION Noise pollution, or noise disturbance, is annoying or excessive noise that can affect the activity or balance of human or animal life. Most of the world's external noise sources are primarily caused by machinery, transportation systems, cars, planes and trains. External noise is summarized in the term environmental noise.…

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COMMUNITIES OF THE ENVIRONMENT

INTRODUCTION All the living organisms of an ecosystem form a single biotic component, the community or biotic community (communities of the environment). All the organisms of a community live together, share same habitat, influence each other's life directly or indirectly and have reached a survival level within a given radiant…

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CELLS OF IMMUNE SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION Cells of immune system and the immune system protects multicellular organisms from pathogens attack.Highly adaptable, it defends the body against invaders as tiny as (~30 nm), intracellular virus that causes polio and as large as the giant parasitic kidney worm Dioctophyme renale.  These invading pathogens needs to be  detected…

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MECHANISM OF ENZYME CATALYSIS

INTRODUCTION - MECHANISM OF ENZYME CATALYSIS The enzymatic catalysis of reactions is essential to living systems. Under biologically relevant conditions, uncatalyzed reactions tend to be slow—most biological molecules are quite stable in the neutral-pH, mild-temperature, aqueous environment inside cells. Furthermore, many common chemical processes are unfavorable or unlikely in the…

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CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES AND ENZYME KINETIC

INTRODUCTION CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES AND ENZYME KINETIC Enzymes are central to every biochemical process. Acting in organized sequences, they catalyze the hundreds of stepwise reactions that degrade nutrient molecules, conserve and transform chemical energy, and make biological macromolecules from simple precursors. The study of enzymes has immense practical importance. In…

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CAUSES OF EXTINCTION OF WILDLIFE

Introduction This article includes comprehensive information on the causes of extinction of wildlife and how to conserve it. Each ecosystem on land and in water contains a variety of living things. While fish, some insects, and small plants dwell in the aquatic ecosystem, cattle, plants, trees, and other living things…

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ENERGY FLOW IN ENVIRONMENT

INTRODUCTION Energy flow in environment is the important function in the ecosystem. The storage of the energy in the ecosystem is based on two basic laws of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics states that when energy is converted from one form into another, energy is neither created nor destroyed.…

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ABIOTIC FACTORS

INTRODUCTION Abiotic and biotic factors or components are present in environment of an organism. The abiotic factors includes the atmosphere(air), hydrosphere (water), and lithosphere( land including soil).The abiotic factors are characterized by physical and chemical factors such as light, temperature, rainfall, pressure, pH, the content of oxygen and other gases.…

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ENVIRONMENT AND BIOSPHERE

INTRODUCTION  Environment and biosphere: Every living organism has its own surrounding, medium of environment to which it interacts and is adapted to it. The environment is the sum total of physical or abiotic and biotic conditions influencing the organisms. The life supporting environment of planet earth is biosphere. The biosphere…

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