FILTER FEEDING IN POLYCHAETA

INTRODUCTION Polychaeta, a diverse class of segmented marine worms, exhibit a wide range of feeding strategies. One of the most intriguing feeding modes found in polychaetes is filter feeding. Filter feeding is a specialized feeding adaptation that allows these organisms to extract food particles suspended in water. This article provides…

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NUTRITION IN PROTOZOA

INTRODUCTION Nutrition in Protozoa involves various modes of feeding. Protozoa are a diverse group of single-celled eukaryotic microorganisms that play significant ecological roles and exhibit diverse nutritional strategies. They can be found in various environments, including freshwater, marine habitats, and soil. Understanding the nutritional requirements and mechanisms of nutrient acquisition…

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CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYLUM ANNELIDA

INTRODUCTION Characteristics of Phylum Annelida is their segmented body plan. The bodies of annelids are divided into a series of repetitive segments or metameres, each containing specific organs and structures. This segmentation allows for functional specialization, flexibility, and adaptability to different environments. Whether they inhabit marine, freshwater, or terrestrial habitats,…

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CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES

INTRODUCTION Phylum Platyhelminthes, commonly known as flatworms, is a diverse group of invertebrates that exhibit unique characteristics and adaptations. This phylum consists of various species, including parasitic and free-living flatworms. In this article, we will explore the characteristics of Phylum Platyhelminthes, their classification, adaptations, ecological roles, and provide examples of…

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CHARACTERISTICS OF PHYLUM CNIDARIA

INTRODUCTION Phylum Cnidaria encompasses a diverse group of marine organisms, including jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and hydroids. These organisms share several characteristic features that define the phylum. In this article, we will explore the characteristics of Phylum Cnidaria, its classification, unique adaptations, ecological significance, and provide examples of organisms within…

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PHYLUM PROTOZOA

INTRODUCTION Phylum Protozoa includes a diverse group of single-celled eukaryotic organisms that belong to the kingdom Protista. They exhibit a remarkable range of characteristics and inhabit a wide variety of environments, including freshwater, marine habitats, soil, and even the bodies of other organisms. In this article, we will explore the…

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PHYLUM PORIFERA

INTRODUCTION Phylum Porifera, commonly known as sponges, represents one of the simplest and most primitive multicellular organisms in the animal kingdom. This phylum includes a wide variety of marine and freshwater species that exhibit diverse shapes, sizes, and colors. Sponges possess unique structural and physiological characteristics, lacking true tissues and…

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LARVAL FORMS OF ECHINODERMS

LARVAL FORMS OF ECHINODERMS :- Echinoderm larva is strikingly bilaterally symmetrical in marked contrast to radially symmetrical adult. It swims about by means of a ciliated band, which may be complicated by a number of short or long slender projection or arms from the body wall. Based upon the nature and position of the arms or their absence, lame of different classes of Echinodermata may distinguished.

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LARVAL FORMS OF MOLLUSCA

LARVAL FORMS OF MOLLUSCA :- Molluscan life histories do not perfectly correspond with taxonomy, but in general it is true that the archaeogastropods and the bivalves begin life as a trochophore and rapidly pass on to a veliger. There are different types of molluscan larvae according to the importance of the pelegic phase and amount of planktonic food taken. G. Thorson (1950) recognised three ecological types of larvae in Mollusca.

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LARVAL FORMS OF TREMATODA, CESTODA AND ANNELIDA

LARVAL FORMS OF TREMATODA, CESTODA AND ANNELIDA :- The trematods or flukes are either external or internal parasites, the cestodes or tap worms are internal parasites. The termatoda class includes three order . The fasciola hepatica which is an example of order digenea have mainly 5 larval forms (i) miracidium (ii) sporocyst (ii) redia (iv) Cercaria (v) metacercaria.

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OSMOREGULATION OF FRESHWATER AND MARINE INVERTEBRATES

Regulation of osmotic pressure of an organism body fluid is refer to as osmoregulation. It allow to maintain balance of water content, fluid content and electrolytes. Hence due to osmoregulation body neither become too dilute nor become too concentrated. Right concentration of solute and amount of water must be maintain by any aquatic [fresh or marine] and terrestrial organisms. It can be mostly achieved by excretion.

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EXCRETION IN HIGHER AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES

EXCRETION IN HIGHER AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES :- Process by which nitrogenous waste produce during metabolism is removed is known as excretion. Some animals such hydra, echinoderms and other may not posses proper excretory organs the reason is quite clear that they are aquatic and it is supposed that nitrogenous material may be diffuse out of there body through their body surface.

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